@article{41c4f4509ab347ca83a04ae21e5d49f1,

title = "Adjustments to Model Predictions of Depth of Shower Maximum and Signals at Ground Level using Hybrid Events of the Pierre Auger Observatory",

abstract = "We present a new method to explore simple ad-hoc adjustments to the predictions of hadronic interaction models to improve their consistency with observed two-dimensional distributions of the depth of shower maximum, Xmax, and signal at ground level, as a function of zenith angle. The method relies on the assumption that the mass composition is the same at all zenith angles, while the atmospheric shower development and attenuation depend on composition in a correlated way. In the present work, for each of the three leading LHC-tuned hadronic interaction models, we allow a global shift ΔXmax of the predicted shower maximum, which is the same for every mass and energy, and a rescaling RHad of the hadronic component at ground level which depends on the zenith angle. We apply the analysis to 2297 events reconstructed by both fluorescence and surface detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory with energies 1018.5 − 1019.0 eV. Given the modeling assumptions made in this analysis, the best fit reaches its optimum value when shifting the Xmax predictions of hadronic interaction models to deeper values and increasing the hadronic signal at both extreme zenith angles. The resulting change in the composition towards heavier primaries alleviates the previously identified model deficit in the hadronic signal (commonly called the muon deficit), but does not remove it. Because of the size of the required corrections ΔXmax and RHad and the large number of events in the sample, the statistical significance of the corrections is large, greater than 5σstat even for the combination of experimental systematic shifts within 1σsys that are the most favorable for the models.",

author = "{The Pierre Auger Collaboration} and Jakub V{\'i}cha and P. Abreu and M. Aglietta and Albury, {J. M.} and I. Allekotte and A. Almela and J. Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and {Alves Batista}, R. and Anastasi, {G. A.} and L. Anchordoqui and B. Andrada and S. Andringa and C. Aramo and {Ara{\'u}jo Ferreira}, {P. R.} and {Arteaga Vel{\'a}zquez}, {J. C.} and H. Asorey and P. Assis and G. Avila and Badescu, {A. M.} and A. Bakalova and A. Balaceanu and F. Barbato and {Bar-Reira Luz}, {R. J.} and Becker, {K. H.} and Bellido, {J. A.} and C. Berat and Bertaina, {M. E.} and X. Bertou and Biermann, {P. L.} and V. Binet and K. Bismark and T. Bister and J. Biteau and J. Blazek and C. Bleve and M. Boh{\'a}{\v c}ov{\'a} and D. Boncioli and C. Bonifazi and {Bonneau Arbeletche}, L. and N. Borodai and Botti, {A. M.} and J. Brack and T. Bretz and {Brichetto Orchera}, {P. G.} and Briechle, {F. L.} and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and S. Buitink and M. Buscemi and M. B{\"u}sken and Caballero-Mora, {K. S.} and L. Caccianiga and F. Canfora and I. Caracas and Carceller, {J. M.} and R. Caruso and A. Castellina and F. Catalani and G. Cataldi and L. Cazon and M. Cerda and Chinellato, {J. A.} and J. Chudoba and L. Chytka and Clay, {R. W.} and {Cobos Cerutti}, {A. C.} and R. Colalillo and A. Coleman and Coluccia, {M. R.} and R. Concei{\c c}{\~a}o and A. Condorelli and G. Consolati and F. Contreras and F. Convenga and {Correia dos Santos}, D. and Covault, {C. E.} and S. Dasso and K. Daumiller and Dawson, {B. R.} and Day, {J. A.} and {de Almeida}, {R. M.} and {de Jes{\'u}s}, J. and {de Jong}, {S. J.} and {De Mauro}, G. and {de Mello Neto}, {J. R.T.} and {De Mitri}, I. and {de Oliveira}, J. and {de Oliveira Franco}, D. and {de Palma}, F. and {de Souza}, V. and {De Vito}, E. and {del R{\'i}o}, M. and O. Deligny and L. Deval and {di Matteo}, A. and C. Dobrigkeit and D{\textquoteright}Olivo, {J. C.} and {Domingues Mendes}, {L. M.} and {dos Anjos}, {R. C.} and {dos Santos}, D. and Dova, {M. T.} and J. 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note = "Funding Information: This work is funded by the Czech Republic grants of MEYS CR: LTT18004, LM2015038, LM2018102, CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001402, CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/18_046/0016010. Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} Copyright owned by the author(s).; null ; Conference date: 12-07-2021 Through 23-07-2021",

year = "2022",

month = mar,

day = "18",

language = "Ingl{\'e}s",

volume = "395",

journal = "Proceedings of Science",

issn = "1824-8039",

}