@article{a4f34eb22a8d48d58b0d93aa4e14f90e,

title = "Event-by-event reconstruction of the shower maximum Xmax with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory using deep learning",

abstract = "The measurement of the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays constitutes a prime challenge in astroparticle physics. Most detailed information on the composition can be obtained from measurements of the depth of maximum of air showers, Xmax, with the use of fluorescence telescopes, which can be operated only during clear and moonless nights. Using deep neural networks, it is now possible for the first time to perform an event-by-event reconstruction of Xmax with the Surface Detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Therefore, previously recorded data can be analyzed for information on Xmax, and thus, the cosmic-ray composition. Since the SD operates with a duty cycle of almost 100% and its event selection is less strict than for the Fluorescence Detector (FD), the gain in statistics with respect to the FD is almost a factor of 15 for energies above 1019.5 eV. In this contribution, we introduce the neural network particularly designed for the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We evaluate its performance using three different hadronic interaction models, verify its functionality using Auger hybrid measurements, and find that the method can extract mass information on an event level.",

author = "{Pierre Augerb Collaboration} and J. Glombitza and P. Abreu and M. Aglietta and Albury, {J. M.} and I. Allekotte and A. Almela and J. Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and {Alves Batista}, R. and Anastasi, {G. A.} and L. Anchordoqui and B. Andrada and S. Andringa and C. Aramo and {Ara{\'u}jo Ferreira}, {P. R.} and {Arteaga Vel{\'a}zquez}, {J. C.} and H. Asorey and P. Assis and G. Avila and Badescu, {A. M.} and A. Bakalova and A. Balaceanu and F. Barbato and {Barreira Luz}, {R. J.} and Becker, {K. H.} and Bellido, {J. A.} and C. Berat and Bertaina, {M. E.} and X. Bertou and Biermann, {P. L.} and V. Binet and K. Bismark and T. Bister and J. Biteau and J. Blazek and C. Bleve and M. Boh{\'a}{\v c}ov{\'a} and D. Boncioli and C. Bonifazi and {Bonneau Arbeletche}, L. and N. Borodai and Botti, {A. M.} and J. Brack and T. Bretz and {Brichetto Orchera}, {P. G.} and Briechle, {F. L.} and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and S. Buitink and M. Buscemi and M. B{\"u}sken and Caballero-Mora, {K. S.} and L. Caccianiga and F. Canfora and I. Caracas and Carceller, {J. M.} and R. Caruso and A. Castellina and F. Catalani and G. Cataldi and L. Cazon and M. Cerda and Chinellato, {J. A.} and J. Chudoba and L. Chytka and Clay, {R. W.} and {Cobos Cerutti}, {A. C.} and R. Colalillo and A. Coleman and Coluccia, {M. R.} and R. Concei{\c c}{\~a}o and A. Condorelli and G. Consolati and F. Contreras and F. Convenga and {Correia dos Santos}, D. and Covault, {C. E.} and S. Dasso and K. Daumiller and Dawson, {B. R.} and Day, {J. A.} and {de Almeida}, {R. M.} and {de Jes{\'u}s}, J. and {de Jong}, {S. J.} and {De Mauro}, G. and {de Mello Neto}, {J. R.T.} and {De Mitri}, I. and {de Oliveira}, J. and {de Oliveira Franco}, D. and {de Palma}, F. and {de Souza}, V. and {De Vito}, E. and {del R{\'i}o}, M. and O. Deligny and L. Deval and {di Matteo}, A. and C. Dobrigkeit and D{\textquoteright}Olivo, {J. C.} and {Domingues Mendes}, {L. M.} and {dos Anjos}, {R. C.} and {dos Santos}, D. and Dova, {M. T.} and J. Ebr and R. Engel and I. Epicoco and M. Erdmann and Escobar, {C. O.} and A. Etchegoyen and H. Falcke and J. Farmer and G. Farrar and Fauth, {A. C.} and N. Fazzini and F. Feldbusch and F. Fenu and B. Fick and Figueira, {J. M.} and A. Filip{\v c}i{\v c} and T. Fitoussi and T. Fodran and Freire, {M. M.} and T. Fujii and A. Fuster and C. Galea and C. Galelli and B. Garc{\'i}a and {Garcia Vegas}, {A. L.} and H. Gemmeke and F. Gesualdi and A. Gherghel-Lascu and Ghia, {P. L.} and U. Giaccari and M. Giammarchi and J. Glombitza and F. Gobbi and F. Gollan and G. Golup and {G{\'o}mez Berisso}, M. and {G{\'o}mez Vitale}, {P. F.} and Gongora, {J. P.} and Gonz{\'a}lez, {J. M.} and N. Gonz{\'a}lez and I. Goos and D. G{\'o}ra and A. Gorgi and M. Gottowik and Grubb, {T. D.} and F. Guarino and Guedes, {G. P.} and E. Guido and S. Hahn and P. Hamal and Hampel, {M. R.} and P. Hansen and D. Harari and Harvey, {V. M.} and A. Haungs and T. Hebbeker and D. Heck and Hill, {G. C.} and C. Hojvat and H{\"o}randel, {J. R.} and P. Horvath and M. Hrabovsk{\'y} and T. Huege and A. Insolia and Isar, {P. G.} and P. Janecek and Johnsen, {J. A.} and J. Jurysek and A. K{\"a}{\"a}p{\"a} and Kampert, {K. H.} and N. Karastathis and B. Keilhauer and J. Kemp and A. Khakurdikar and {Kizakke Covilakam}, {V. V.} and Klages, {H. O.} and M. Kleifges and J. Kleinfeller and M. K{\"o}pke and N. Kunka and Lago, {B. L.} and Lang, {R. G.} and N. Langner and {Leigui de Oliveira}, {M. A.} and V. Lenok and A. Letessier-Selvon and I. Lhenry-Yvon and {Lo Presti}, D. and L. Lopes and R. L{\'o}pez and L. Lu and Q. Luce and Lundquist, {J. P.} and {Machado Payeras}, A. and G. Mancarella and D. Mandat and Manning, {B. C.} and J. Manshanden and P. Mantsch and S. Marafico and Mariazzi, {A. G.} and Mari{\c s}, {I. C.} and G. Marsella and D. Martello and S. Martinelli and {Mart{\'i}nez Bravo}, O. and M. Mastrodicasa and Mathes, {H. J.} and J. Matthews and G. Matthiae and E. Mayotte and Mazur, {P. O.} and G. Medina-Tanco and D. Melo and A. Menshikov and Merenda, {K. D.} and S. Michal and Micheletti, {M. I.} and L. Miramonti and S. Mollerach and F. Montanet and C. Morello and M. Mostaf{\'a} and M{\"u}ller, {A. L.} and Muller, {M. A.} and K. Mulrey and R. Mussa and M. Muzio and Namasaka, {W. M.} and A. Nasr-Esfahani and L. Nellen and M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu and M. Niechciol and D. Nitz and D. Nosek and V. Novotny and L. No{\v z}ka and A. Nucita and N{\'u}{\~n}ez, {L. A.} and M. Palatka and J. Pallotta and P. Papenbreer and G. Parente and A. Parra and J. Pawlowsky and M. Pech and F. Pedreira and J. Pekala and R. Pelayo and J. Pe{\~n}a-Rodriguez and {Pereira Martins}, {E. E.} and {Perez Armand}, J. and {P{\'e}rez Bertolli}, C. and M. Perlin and L. Perrone and S. Petrera and T. Pierog and M. Pimenta and V. Pirronello and M. Platino and B. Pont and M. Pothast and P. Privitera and M. Prouza and A. Puyleart and S. Querchfeld and J. Rautenberg and D. Ravignani and M. Reininghaus and J. Ridky and F. Riehn and M. Risse and V. Rizi and {Rodrigues de Carvalho}, W. and {Rodriguez Rojo}, J. and Roncoroni, {M. J.} and S. Rossoni and M. Roth and E. Roulet and Rovero, {A. C.} and P. Ruehl and A. Saftoiu and F. Salamida and H. Salazar and G. Salina and {Sanabria Gomez}, {J. D.} and F. S{\'a}nchez and Santos, {E. M.} and E. Santos and F. Sarazin and R. Sarmento and C. Sarmiento-Cano and R. Sato and P. Savina and Sch{\"a}fer, {C. M.} and V. Scherini and H. Schieler and M. Schimassek and M. Schimp and F. Schl{\"u}ter and D. Schmidt and O. Scholten and P. Schov{\'a}nek and Schr{\"o}der, {F. G.} and S. Schr{\"o}der and J. Schulte and Sciutto, {S. J.} and M. Scornavacche and A. Segreto and S. Sehgal and Shellard, {R. C.} and G. Sigl and G. Silli and O. Sima and R. {\v S}m{\'i}da and P. Sommers and Soriano, {J. F.} and J. Souchard and R. Squartini and M. Stadelmaier and D. Stanca and S. Stani{\v c} and J. Stasielak and P. Stassi and A. Streich and M. Su{\'a}rez-Dur{\'a}n and T. Sudholz and T. Suomij{\"a}rvi and Supanitsky, {A. D.} and Z. Szadkowski and A. Tapia and C. Taricco and C. Timmermans and O. Tkachenko and P. Tobiska and {Todero Peixoto}, {C. J.} and B. Tom{\'e} and Z. Torr{\`e}s and A. Travaini and P. Travnicek and C. Trimarelli and M. Tueros and R. Ulrich and M. Unger and L. Vaclavek and M. Vacula and {Vald{\'e}s Galicia}, {J. F.} and L. Valore and E. Varela and A. V{\'a}squez-Ram{\'i}rez and D. Veberi{\v c} and C. Ventura and {Vergara Quispe}, {I. D.} and V. Verzi and J. Vicha and J. Vink and S. Vorobiov and H. Wahlberg and C. Watanabe and Watson, {A. A.} and M. Weber and A. Weindl and L. Wiencke and H. Wilczy{\'n}ski and M. Wirtz and D. Wittkowski and B. Wundheiler and A. Yushkov and O. Zapparrata and E. Zas and D. Zavrtanik and M. Zavrtanik and L. Zehrer",

note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} Copyright owned by the author(s).; 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2021 ; Conference date: 12-07-2021 Through 23-07-2021",

year = "2022",

month = mar,

day = "18",

language = "Ingl{\'e}s",

volume = "395",

journal = "Proceedings of Science",

issn = "1824-8039",

}