Compared to conventional ground heat exchangers that require a separate pump or other mechanical devices to circulate the heat transfer fluid, ground coupled thermosiphons or naturally circulating ground heat exchangers do not require additional equipment for fluid circulation in the loop. This might lead to a better overall efficiency and much simpler operation. This paper provides a review of the current published literature on the different types of existing ground coupled thermosiphons for use in applications requiring moderate and low temperatures. Effort has been focused on their classification according to type, configurations, major designs, and chronological year of apparition. Important technological findings and characteristics are provided in summary tables. Advances are identified in terms of the latest device developments and innovative concepts of thermosiphon technology used for the heat transfer to and from the soil. Applications are presented in a novel, well-defined classification in which major ground coupled thermosiphon applications are categorized in terms of medium and low temperature technologies. Finally, performance evaluation is meticulously discussed in terms of modeling, simulations, parametric, and experimental studies.