Acetaminophen (ACE), cephalexin (CPX), and valsartan (VAL) are recognized water pollutants, which can be removed by adsorption. Herein, the removal of these pharmaceuticals using a biochar (BP), prepared from oil palm fiber, was tested. It was studied the structural effects of the pharmaceuticals and biochar on the adsorption process supported by experimental and computational results, plus characterizations of the material. The biochar has 76.05 m2 g−1 of surficial area, and carboxylic groups (1.343 mmol g−1) predominantly. The maximum adsorption uptakes were 7.3, 7.9, and 23.85 mg g−1 for ACE, CPX, and VAL, respectively; following pseudo-second-order kinetics. The best pollutants removal was obtained at acidic pH (3.0). Computational analyses indicated that oxygenated groups of BP (able to generate H-bond interactions) influenced the adsorption of pharmaceuticals. It can be remarked that BP is a low-cost adsorbent synthesized easily from wastes, with high feasibility to remove pharmaceutical structures from water.