Reducing cadmium bioaccumulation in Theobroma cacao using biochar: basis for scaling-up to field

Julián E. López, Catalina Arroyave, Adriana Aristizábal, Byrone Almeida, Santiago Builes, Eduardo Chavez

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

6 Citas (Scopus)


The intake of Cd-enriched food is the main Cd pathway for the nonsmoking population. In some cases, Cd bioaccumulates in edible plant parts which comprise risk to consumers, because of Cd is a harmful heavy metal that can cause potent environmental and health hazards. For instance, Cd enrichment of cacao seeds have led to Cd enrichment of cacao-based products. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Cd bioaccumulation in cacao seeds occurs in different regions with diverse edaphoclimatic conditions, which makes it difficult to select soil remediation alternatives. Limited resources require that potential amendments must be carefully investigated through laboratory and/or greenhouse conditions before scaling up to field experiments. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of four biochars: coffee-, quinoa-, and inoculated- and palm-biochar, derived from three feedstocks: coffee husk, quinoa straw, and oil palm residues, respectively. Biochars were applied in two rates (1 and 2% w/w) in two soils, one moderately acidic and one slightly alkaline (Cd-spiked and non-spiked). CCN-51 cacao plants were used for the greenhouse experiment. After 130 days, biometric parameters, the bioavailability of Cd in the soil, and the concentration of Cd and mineral nutrients in the plants were measured. Quinoa biochar at the 2% significantly decreased (P < 0.01), by ∼71%, bioavailable Cd in moderately acidic and slightly alkaline soils, and leaf-Cd by ∼48%. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, and effective cation exchange capacity were significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with bioavailable soil and leaf-Cd. Biochar characteristics, such as ash contents, basic cations content, and surface functional groups could be used as indicators for the selection of biochars to reduce Cd uptake by cacao. Additionally, application of quinoa derived biochar provided P and K, which could increase productivity to offset mitigation costs. Overall, incorporation of quinoa biochar at 2% rate is effective for lowering bioavailable Cd in different soil types which reduces leaf-Cd in cacao plants.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículoe09790
EstadoPublicada - jun. 2022


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