The article wonders concretely, the stage on which is appreciated for local governments, the attention of states of emergency, meanwhile, public, economic, ecological and social calamity, under the scrutiny of the cold wave that periodically suffers the country. The theoretical perspective is based on the state of emergency and in the central and decentralized institutional structure in Colombia. The methodological approach is systemic. Meanwhile, it is not found in the mechanisms of central and decentralized administration how to spend mitigation and repair in key territorial reality of the country and, therefore, is contemplated in the process of ordering and planning territorial. The few resources, efficiency in the distribution of public budget and low government intervention in the national territory, which is exposed the country coincide with institutional weakness.