This work presents a literature review of the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) investigations and applications in the biomedical field. The FrFT is a time-frequency analysis tool that has been used for signal and image processing due to its capability in capturing the non-stationary characteristics of real signals. Most biomedical signals are an example of such non-stationarity. Thus, the FrFT-based solutions can be formulated, aiming to enhance the health technology. As the literature review indicates, common applications of the FrFT involves signal detection, filtering and features extraction. Establishing adequate solutions for these tasks requires a proper fractional order estimation and implementing the suitable numeric approach for the discrete FrFT calculation. Since most of the reports barely describe the methodology on this regard, it is important that future works include detailed information about the implementation criteria of the FrFT. Although the applications in biomedical sciences are not yet among the most frequent FrFT fields of action, the growing interest of the scientific community in the FrFT, supports its practical usefulness for developing new biomedical tools.